NJPS - 1988
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This was made directly from the traditional Hebrew text into the idiom of modern English. It was translated by academic scholars and rabbis from the three largest branches of organized Jewish religious life in America. It was begun in 1955 and was published in three stages: Torah in 1962, Nevi'im in 1978, and Kethuvim in 1982. These were brought together into a complete English Tanakh.

The aim of the translators was to produce the Hebrew idiomatically; to reflect contemporary scholarship, emphasizing intelligibility and correctness; and to make critical use of early rabbinical and medieval Jewish scholars. Obsolete phrases and words were avoided. Logical units of meaning were followed even when they did not coincide with the conventional chapters and verses. However, the latter are marked and numbered throughout.

In order to provide an intelligent rendering of The Prophets (Nevi'im), the translators made corrections in passages where the meaning was uncertain. Some were made by consulting the Septuagint and the Targums, which had used ancient texts in translating. Where The Writings (Kethuvim) have similar passages to those in Torah and Nevi'im, rendering of those follow wording of the earlier books. Revision of the three sections, especially of Torah, have been done before this one-volume Tanakh was published.

Jewish Publication Society (1988)

[Tyndale House, Cambridge, United Kingdom]


Genesis 1: 1, 2

When God began to create heaven and earth -- the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from God sweeping over the water --


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