Horses from Egypt and Kue
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It is often useful to check various versions when studying Bible passages. Sometimes, a completely different meaning occurs. Sometimes, a version will offer additional information. Sometimes, a version will use words which bring out the meaning better. Sometimes, it is possible to fit together the wording and information of several versions to arrive at a conclusion of what the passage is telling us. Such is the case of 1 Kings 10: 28, 29 in regard to the purchase of horses by King Solomon. This would be missed if only one version be used. The verses as they appear in twenty-six versions are listed in this essay. A commentary follows the listing.


Versions Compared

 

AAT An American Translation (Beck)
DHB Darby Holy Bible
EVD English Version for the Deaf
GW God's Word
HBME The Holy Bible in Modern English
JBK Jerusalem Bible (Koren)
KJV King James Version
KTC Knox Translation
LB Living Bible
LBP Lamsa Bible
LXX The Septuagint
MNT Moffatt New Translation
NAS New American Standard Version
NBV New Berkeley Version
NCV New Century Version
NIV New International Version
NJB New Jerusalem Bible
NJPS New JPS Version
NLT New Living Translation
NLV New Life Version
REB Revised English Bible
SARV Standard American Edition, Revised Version
SNB Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible
TEV Today's English Version
TJB The Jerusalem Bible (Catholic)
YLR Young's Literal Translation, Revised Edition


1 Kings 10: 28, 29

 

AAT Solomon imported horses from Egypt and Cilicia. The king's traders got them from Cilicia for a fixed price.
A chariot was imported from Egypt for 600 shekels of silver, and a horse for 150. And so all the Hittite and Aramaean kings got their horses through Solomon's agents.
DHB And the exportation of horses that Solomon had was from Egypt: a caravan of the king's merchants fetched a drove [of horses], at a price.
And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred [shekels] of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty; and so they brought [them] by their means , for all the kings of the Hittites and for the kings of Syria.
EVD Solomon bought horses from Egypt and Kue. His traders bought them in Kue and brought them to Israel.
A chariot from Egypt cost about 15 pounds of silver, and a horse cost about 3 3/4 pounds of silver. Solomon sold horses and chariots to the kings of the Hittites and the Arameans.
Footnote: 3 3/4 pounds, Or "1.725 kg." Literally, "150 shekels."
GW Solomon's horses were imported from Egypt and Kue. The king's traders bought them from Kue for a fixed price.
Each chariot was imported from Egypt for 15 pounds of silver and each horse for 6 ounces of silver. For the same price they obtained horses to export to all the Hittite and Aramean kings.
[COMMENT: 3 3/4 pounds = 60 ounces. Is there an error in this text?]
HBME The horses that Solomon had were brought from Egypt, and the collecting merchants were paid for them by the king according to contract.
They brought up and fetched an Egyptian chariot for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for one hundred and fifty, and the same from all the Chiefs of the Hittites, and from the Chiefs of Aram, who brought them to hand.
JBK And Shelomo had horses brought from Mizrayim and from Qeve; the king's merchants took the horses from Qeve at a fixed price.
And a chariot going out of Mizrayim would cost six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse, a hundred and fifty: and so by their means they brought them out also for all the kings of Hittin and the kings of Aram.
KJV And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price.
And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and an horse for an hundred and fifty: and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means.
Footnote: [bring them out], export.
KTC And horses were brought to Solomon from Egypt and from Coa, where his agents bought and sent them to him for a fixed sum.
Six hundred pieces of silver was the cost of a chariot brought from Egypt, and fifty of a horse; the kings of the Hethites and of Syria, too, sold him horses at the same price.
Footnote: The sense of the Hebrew text here is uncertain: some would understand the word "Coa" as a common noun, not as a proper name; perhaps "droves" of horses.
[COMMENT: 3 Kings in this version.]
LB Solomon's horses were brought to him from Egypt and southern Turkey, where his agents purchased them at wholesale prices.
An Egyptian chariot delivered to Jerusalem cost $400, and the horses were valued at $150 each. Many of these were then resold to the Hittite and Syrian kings.
LBP And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and the king's merchants received a commission on the goods they bought.
And a chariot was delivered from Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty; and so for all the kings of the Hittites and for all the kings of Aram, they brought many gifts with their own hands.
LXX And the goings-forth of Solomon's horsemen was also out of Egypt, and the king's merchants were of Thecue; and they received them out of Thecue at a price.
And that which proceeded out of Egypt went up thus, even a chariot for a hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for fifty shekels of silver: and thus for all the kings of the Chettians, and the kings of Syria, they came out by sea.
[COMMENT: 3 Kings in this version.]
MNT Solomon's horses were imported from Muzri and from KuÍ; the royal dealers used to bring a troop of horses from KuÍ, paying cash for them;
a chariot could be imported from Muzri for seventy-five pounds of silver, and a horse for about twenty pounds in silver (the dealers supplied all the kings of the Hittites and the Aramśans at the same rate).
NAS Also Solomon's import of horses was from Egypt and Kue, and the king's merchants procured them from Cue for a price.
And a chariot was imported from Egypt for 600 shekels of silver, and a horse for 150; and by the same means they exported them to all the kings of the Hittites and to the kings of the Arameans.
NBV Solomon's horses came from Egypt and Cilicia; the royal merchants brought [them] from Cilicia at the prevailing price --
an Egyptian chariot for $400 in silver and a horse for 100 dollars -- and so they delivered them by their hand to all the Hittite and Syrian kings.
Footnote: [by their hand] i. e., by their agency.
NCV He imported horses from Egypt and Kue. His traders bought them in Kue.
A chariot from Egypt cost about fifteen pounds of silver, and a horse cost nearly four pounds of silver. Solomon's traders also sold horses and chariots to all the kings of the Hittites and the Arameans.
NIV Solomon's horses were imported from Egypt and from Kue -- the royal merchants purchased them from Kue.
They imported a chariot from Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty. They also exported them to all the kings of the Hittites and of the Arameans.
Footnote: [Egypt] Or possibly Muzur, a region in Cilicia.
Footnote:
[Kue] Probably Cilicia.
Footnote:
[One hundred fifty shekels of silver] That is, about 3 3/4 pounds (about 1.7 kilograms).
NJB Solomon's horses were imported from Muzur and Cilicia. The king's dealers acquired them from Cilicia at the prevailing price.
A chariot was imported from Egypt for six hundred silver shekels and a horse from Silicia for a hundred and fifty. They also supplied the Hittite and Aramean kings, who all used them as middlemen.
NJPS Solomon's horses were procured from Mizraim and Kue. The king's dealers would buy them from Kue at a fixed price.
A chariot imported from Mizraim cost 600 shekels of silver, and a horse 150; these in turn were exported by them to all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of the Arameans.
Footnote: [Mizraim]. Usually Egypt, here perhaps Musru, a neighbor of Cue (Cilicia).
Footnote:
[them, verse 29]. I. e., Solomon's dealers.
NLT Solomon's horses were imported from Egypt and Cilicia; the king's traders acquired them from Cilicia at the standard price.
At that time, Egyptian chariots delivered to Jerusalem could be purchased for 600 pieces of silver, ad horses could be bought for 150 pieces of silver. Many of these were then resold to the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Aram.
Footnote: [Egypt]. Possibly Muzur, a district of Cilicia.
Footnote:
[Cilicia]. Hebrew Kue, probably another name for Cilicia.
Footnote: Hebrew
150 [shekels], about 3.8 pounds or 1.7 kilograms in weight.
NLV Solomon had horses brought from Egypt and Kue. The king's traders brought them from Kue, each for a price.
A war-wagon could be brought from Egypt for 600 pieces of silver, and a horse for 150 pieces of silver. They got them in the same way for all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Syria.
REB Horses were imported from Egypt and Kue for Solomon; the merchants of the king obtained them from Kue by purchase.
Chariots were imported from Egypt for six hundred shekels each, and horses for a hundred and fifty; in the same way the merchants obtained them for export from all the kings of the Hittites and the kings of Aram.
SARV And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; and the king's merchants received them in droves, each drove at a price.
And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty; and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means.
SNB And the horses that Solomon had were, an export out of Egypt, and a company of the merchants of the king used to fetch a drove at a price.
And a chariot came up and forth out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty, and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, by their means, came they forth.
TEV The king's agents controlled the export of horses from Musri and Cilicia,
and the export of chariots from Egypt. They supplied the Hittite and Syrian kings with horses and chariots, selling chariots for 600 pieces of silver each and horses for 150 each.
TJB Solomon's horses were imported from Cilicia; the king's agents took delivery of them from Cilicia at a fixed rate.
A chariot was imported from Egypt for six hundred shekels, a horse for a hundred and fifty. These were exported through the king's agents to all the kings of the Hittites and to the kings of Aram in the same way.
YLR And the out-going of the horses that King Solomon hath is from Egypt, and from Keveh; merchants of the king take from Keveh at a price.
and a chariot cometh up and cometh out of Egypt for six hundred silverlings, and a horse for fifty and a hundred, and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Aram; by their hand they bring out.


Commentary

 

Alfred Edersheim, in a footnote on page 615 of his book Bible History: Old Testament, states that in the Authorised (King James) Version, 1 Kings 10: 28 "linen yarn," is a mistranslation for the latter part of the verse. The only version which agrees with it is the Inspired Version, which is an inspired correction of the King James Version. If these two versions were inspired by Yahweh, as their proponents claim, all the other versions are incorrect. However, this particular phrase seems to have placed where it is out of context.

Let us look at some other differences within this list. The sources of the chariots and horses have a variety of names. There is a variation in the prices paid. The Living Bible and the New Berkeley Version use U.S. currency to make the value more easily comprehended by today's reader. The problem with this approach is that the value of a currency changes over the years through fluctuation, deflation, and inflation. Four versions convert the Israelite unit of weight, "the shekel," to pounds and/or kilograms for the same reason. This does not create as much of a problem, if this information is stated in a footnote. Otherwise, it is an anachronism. Other terms used are "pieces of silver" and "silverlings." Although the correct term is "shekels," this is not as easily understood by many readers of the Bible. The Knox Translation and the Revised English Bible have chariots and horses purchased from the kings of the Hittites and Syrians, whereas, all the others have the sales going in the opposite direction. The Lamsa Bible states that the agents received a commission for their work and that gifts, not chariots and horses, were taken to kings of the Hittites and of Aram (Syria).

Now, I shall try to piece together all the information as gathered from the various versions, including their footnotes, to determine what actually took place.

Solomon, through the aid of middlemen, purchased horses from Cilicia (Hebrew, Keve or Kue) and chariots from Mizrayim (or Muzur), a region of Cilicia, for his war purposes (verse 26). Although Egypt is mentioned in most versions, it probably means Cilicia in this case. Cilicia was a region of present-day Turkey, to the north of Cyprus. It was possibly two regions of the same country where the purchases were made. The agents paid six hundred shekels for one chariot and one hundred fifty shekels for one horse. A shekel was an Israelite weight about equivalent to 3.8 pounds or 1.7 kilograms. This price was constant, as agreed upon. For their work, the agents received a commission. They took the horses in droves to King Solomon's stables. They also sold horses to the Hittite kings and the Syrian (Aramean) kings, whose countries lay between Cilicia and Israel, for the same price.

Thus, by taking information from several sources, the story can be pieced together. The elements which do not concur or which give an opposite meaning can be eliminated. Although this process is not foolproof, it can be helpful in understanding what the original writer has said.